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11.10.2014  13 IGAC Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry (Brazil)
27.02.2013  Davos Atmosphere and Cryosphere Assembly DACA-13
16.02.2013  19th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols
04.12.2012  Cuba 2012 tests of ground-based generator
08.04.2012  International Symposium of Hail Defense 2012
10.11.2011  The 10th WMO Scientific Conference on Weather Modification Bali, Indonesia 4-10 October 2011
23.11.2010  Ground based ice-forming aerosol generator
21.11.2010  Film:
"Hour "X". Avoid apokallipsis"
03.10.2010  TV film:
"Heat. Made of hands."
16.05.2010  Studying an effect of salt powder seeding (article)
23.04.2010  Sky Clear 1: precipitation control
01.03.2010  Sky Clear 2: small distance rocket
21.02.2010  Sky Clear 3: ground generator
19.02.2010  Sky Clear 5 (CP): universal system for control precipitation
14.12.2009  Sky Clear 6 (AH): long distance rocket
Ground based ice-forming aerosol generator

Ground based aerosol generator to produce ice-forming and hygroscopic aerosols.

  Increased visibility in a supercooled fog
  Anti-hail works
  Control precipitation
  The possibility of integration into large networks, remote control
  Advertisement:    booklet .jpg    calculation
Temperature Nucleus/per gram composition
-1.0 3.00E+10
-1.2 5.05E+10
-1.8 1.28E+11
-2.4 7.52E+11
-3.0 7.46E+11
-3.4 1.48E+12
-4.8 3.67E+12
-5.4 3.55E+12
-6.0 3.90E+12
-6.8 4.74E+12
-9.8 3.09E+13
  • Long battery life
  • Remote control for wirelessly
  • High activity, stability and response speed ice-forming aerosol
  • Constancy of characteristics of the aerosol over time
  • High reliability, absence of a large quantity of combustible materials.
  • Ability to generate as ice-forming and hygroscopic aerosol
  • Minimum price
  • Ability to work with compositions not containing silver
    for communication on the order of the system, use the form    
Known alternative system:

Liquid generators, their operation is based on burning silver iodide acetone solution. The disadvantage of this design is:

  • small ice-forming activity of aerosols in the range -1 ÷-6 C, which can be explained as an uncontrolled expansion of the ice-forming substances in the flame and the small size of the particles formed during combustion.
  • the complexity of the equipment used to run and maintain the operating mode of the generator
  • the need to store large amounts of pressure (100 - 200 liters) of flammable gases and liquids, which poses a serious danger in case of emergency operation of the generator.
  • significant impact on the use of generators and has a very high cost of installation.

Generators that use refrigerants, namely LPG, CFC, liquid nitrogen. Action of generators based on cooling of the working area of the fog droplets and freeze it. Subsequently the frozen droplets act as nuclei of crystallization. Although these generators have a high ice-forming activity in the area of temperatures ranging from minus 1C, using variants of the generator with liquid propane in some cases (airports) are forbidden because of the high fire danger refrigerant. Used as a refrigerant CFC is highly desirable for environmental reasons. Generators using liquid nitrogen have a limited operational readiness of the inability to store liquid nitrogen for extended period of time (usually no more than a week). Besides the use of generators is connected with the obligatory presence of the production of liquefied gases in a relatively short distance, since transportation of liquid nitrogen is also well-known difficulties.

  All generators of this type have a common drawback: they are effective only within a supercooled fog. Use them at a distance from the zone or zone of warm mist (which can then get into the zone with negative temperatures) is impossible.

Pyrotechnic generators designed for continuous operation, include pyrotechnic devices of considerable length. These generators are more autonomous and fireproof as possible for simultaneous combustion of the entire mass of pyrotecnic composition, however, due to the necessity of the item for at least 15-30 minutes (total running time of assembly should be up to 10 hours) must be use of elongated charges, length of 30 cm or more. Under these conditions, under advancing flame front pyrotecnic composition inside the body of generator and as a consequence of increase the time of location products of burning in the area of high temperatures or deposition of combustion products on the cold walls, activity of the resulting aerosol is significantly reduced.

Situation to some extent, can improve the establishment of additional nozzles along the entire length of the charge, but this can lead to more expensive technological decision, and it's don't lead to decision problem at whole. So under burning the pyrotechnic systems in length about 50 cm ice-nucleation activity of aerosol in the end of work by 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than at the start of work of the generator.

Addition: Testing of Cloud Seeding Materials at the Cloud Simulation and Aerosol Laboratory, 1971-1973