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11.10.2014  13 IGAC Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry (Brazil)
 
27.02.2013  Davos Atmosphere and Cryosphere Assembly DACA-13
 
16.02.2013  19th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols
 
04.12.2012  Cuba 2012 tests of ground-based generator
 
08.04.2012  International Symposium of Hail Defense 2012
 
10.11.2011  The 10th WMO Scientific Conference on Weather Modification Bali, Indonesia 4-10 October 2011
 
23.11.2010  Ground based ice-forming aerosol generator
 
21.11.2010  Film:
"Hour "X". Avoid apokallipsis"
 
03.10.2010  TV film:
"Heat. Made of hands."
 
16.05.2010  Studying an effect of salt powder seeding (article)
 
23.04.2010  Sky Clear 1: precipitation control
 
01.03.2010  Sky Clear 2: small distance rocket
 
21.02.2010  Sky Clear 3: ground generator
 
19.02.2010  Sky Clear 5 (CP): universal system for control precipitation
 
14.12.2009  Sky Clear 6 (AH): long distance rocket
 
Ground generators
Rocket technologies Aircraft technologies

Designed and passes environmental tests the new model ground-based aerosol generator to produce ice-forming and hygroscopic aerosols.

       Anti-hail works
       Control precipitation
       Increased visibility in a supercooled fog
       The possibility of integration into large networks, remote control      ► ► ► ►

Long-acting ground generators are an alternative to the rocket and aircraft technologies. They could be applied in cases when usage of rockets and airplanes is complicated due to whatsoever reason. Principle of action of the ground generator consists in formation in surface air of a considerable seeding area filled with aerosol which is later could be delivered into the cloud by the ascending flows. This applies following restrictions on use of ground generators:

  1. It takes sufficiently long time for aerosol to get into the cloud. Therefore generators should be activated in advance (usually 2-4 hours before start of hail formation process). Since development of the hail formation process could not be precisely predicted at that time, so it is necessary to perform redundant starts of generators which lead to excessive consumption of reagent.
  2. For successful usage of ground generators, some distinctive features of air flows of a particular area should be known and an appropriate model of aerosol spreading should be developed.
At the same time usage of ground generators has its own advantages which being developed in appropriate way can outweigh disadvantages:
  1. When an appropriate orography of district takes place (e.g. presence of mountain ranges or suitable air flows), usage of ground generators may become more cost-effective than rocket and aircraft methods. For example, there is information about Chinese experiments with liquid-based generators (province of Taian, in the Taishan mountain, 1 500 m above sea level). Generators create significant seeding area above a flat territory and may be used for both anti-hail purposes and increasing of the quantity of precipitations.
  2. When ground generators are used, the compact scheme of the generator is no longer necessary. Its becoming possible to use more complex sublimation processes, which results in minimized consumption of silver or even refusal of silver usage (generators of aerosols of copper acetylacetonate, phloroglucinol, etc).

We have started to work on development of a ground generator of ice-forming nuclei based on copper acetylacetonate (without silver compounds). The mass production of copper acetylacetonate is cheap and environmental friendly. Generator itself is sufficiently prospective. However development of industrial standard requires stable customer demand for such generators.

Ground generator
Presently Stroyproject offers a model of ground pyrotechnical generator for ice-forming nuclei "Sky Clear-250" (on the basis of silver compounds) with the following parameters:
Combustion time of the pyrotechnical element, min. 7
Weight of the pyrotechnical composition per element, g. 21
Total weight of the pyrotechnical composition, g. 714
Production of active nuclei of a pyrotechnical element at 10o 4.2E+14
Total production of active nuclei at 10o 1.43E+16
Pyrotechnical elements per test bench * 34
Total useful time of the generator, hours * 4
Remote start Provided
* may be changed in any direction upon customers request
Comparison of outburst of our ground generator with available analogues:
  Production of nuclei per gram composition Note
Pyrotechnical element of the generator "Sky Clear - 250"
- 3.2 1,61E+11
- 6.0 9.95E+12
- 9.8 3.09E+13
Test of RPA Typhoon, Russia, May 2008
GIP2000 Acetone generator, Sweden
- 15 1.00E+13
According to manufacturer"s data
Acetone generator, Ice Crystal Eng., LLC, North Dakota
- 10 1.60E+12
According to manufacturer"s data
Acetone generator, AgI -0,5 NaI ANELFA, France
- 15 0.80E+12
According to manufacturer"s data
Acetone generator, AgI KI Chile No data  
Therefore, we have reasons to assume that the usage of ground generator based on pyrotechnical elements is considerably more effective than acetone generators. Especially in cases of high temperature, which are more typical for a real situation.
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