The main principle of hail suppression consists in creation of a large number of artificial centers of crystallization, which work for water vapor
as additional (and major) way to condense. As a result instead of large hailstones appear smaller ones or even raindrops (if smaller crystals during
their fall have time to melt). In brief, do not going into details of models of hail cells formation and accepted methods of influence, it could be declared
that the more centers of nucleation at greater temperature would be created during the influence, the more effective would be an instrument of the influence.
Depending on conditions of realization of influence, different way of transportation of ice-nucleation aerosol to a cloud could be applied:
- anti-hail rockets (delivery of ice-nucleation aerosol directly into the area of realization of influence).
- generation of ice-nucleation aerosol in area of influence from a board of the aircraft
(aircraft is equipped with aerosol generator or it can shoot off cartridges, which produce aerosol during their fall through a cloud).
- ground generators (they start working in occurrence of potentially hail-dangerous situation
in a few hours before a prospective beginning of the processes.
During that time a surface air becomes saturated with ice-nucleation aerosols and then dragged up with ascending flows).
Among listed methods the rocket means of influence are the most operative and effective, however because of a number of specific reasons
(presence of an infrastructure for work with rockets, accommodation of starting stations, gaining a permission for launching rockets etc.) it isn’t always possible. Usage of ground generators is least effective.
However it is used widely enough in places where application of first two methods finds difficulties.
The given comparison of method efficiency is substantially provisional and is based on comparative cost of generation of necessary concentration
of ice-nucleation aerosol in influence zones. While efficiency of means of influence is changing the priorities can also be changed.
The company produces all types of anti-hail means. Their detail description could be found in corresponding sections.